All English SMA N 1 SLAWI

adverb clause

UNIT 9

Adverb Clauses in Complex Sentences

Source: English for The SLTA-Structure Reference Book II & III, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

An adverb clause is a dependent clause that does the work of an adverb in a complex sentence. Most adverbs modify or add information about the verb or verb phrase of the main clause. An adverb clause may also modify an adjective or an adverb. (See Unit 10).

Frame: Adverb Clauses before or after main clauses

ADVERB CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

ADVERB CLAUSE

CLAUSE MARKER

SUBJECT + PREDICATE, ETC.

SUB­JECT

VERB/VERB PHRASE

CLAUSE MARKER

SUBJECT + PREDICATE, ETC.

1

We

used to live in the village

before

we moved here.

2

You

didn’t tell me about it

when

we left school.

3

A car

hit a tree

where

the street makes a turn.

4

I

wanted to spend my time

as

I thought best.

5

After

I wrote a letter,

I

decided to see a movie.

6

While

I was walking,

I

saw a traffic accident.

7

Because

I didn’t find

you,

I

went by myself.

8

Since

I had nothing to do,

I

came here.

9

After

the balls are packed,

they

are sent to shops.

10

She

Has been the headmaster

since

I first taught here in 1987

11

Because

She was disturbed,

She

Was angry.

12

Please, release me let me go

for

I don’t love you anymore.

Usage

1. In the sentences in the above frame, the adverb clauses modify the verb phrases of the main clauses.

2. An adverb clause may come at the beginning or at the end of the complex sentence. If it comes at the beginning of the sentence, it is commonly followed by a comma (see sentence 5—8). If it comes at the end of the sentence it needs not and usually should not be preceded by a comma (see sentences 1—4).

Note: A sentence may have adverb clauses at the beginning and at the end of the sentence at the same time.

Example:

While I was walking, I saw a traffic accident where a similar accident had happened a week before.

3. Adverb clauses may be divided into several types, depending on the kind of information they give.

• There are adverb clauses of;

a) time

An adverb clause of time can be introduced by the following clause markers: after, before, when, whenever, as, as soon as, until, while, once, since

The adverb clauses in sentences 1, 2, 5 and 6 in the frame are adverb clauses of time. In sentence 1, for example, the adverb clause before we moved here gives information about when we used to live in the village‘.

b) place

An adverb clause of place can be introduced by: where, wherever.

In sentence 3 in the frame, the adverb clause is an adverb clause of place. It tells about where a car ‘hit a tree’.

c) manner

An adverb clause of manner may be introduced by as, as if. In sentence 4 in the frame, the adverb clause is an adverb clause of manner. It tells how I ‘wanted to spend my time’.

d) cause (reason)

An adverb clause of cause (reason) may be introduced by: because, since, as, for. The adverb clauses in sentences 7 and 8 are adverb clauses of cause (reason). In sentence 8, for example, the clause ‘since I had nothing to do’ gives information about whyI came here’.

e) purpose

An adverb clause of purpose can be introduced by: so, so that, in order that, such that, enough that

Example:

He studied hard so that he would pass the exam. The adverb clause ‘so that he would pass the exam’ tells what ‘he studied hard’ for.

f) concession

An adverb clause of concession may be introduced by though, although, eventhough, while, nevertheless (namun demikian), even if (sekalipun)

Example:

He failed eventhough he had studied hard.

g) condition

An adverb clause of condition may be introduced by if, unless,

as long as, on condition that.

Example:

I’ll go by myself if you can’t go. (See also Unit 13).

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