All English SMA N 1 SLAWI

conditional sentences with/without if

Conditional Sentences

Source: English for The SLTA-Structure Reference Book II & III, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

A conditional sentence is a complex sentence expressing a result which is expected from a condition. The condition is stated in a clause which generally begins with the word (/, and the result is expressed in the main clause. The result expected can be real or unreal.

Conditional Sentences with If.

Frame 1: Affirmative Main Clause

MAIN CLAUSE CONDITIONAL CLAUSE

SUB­JECT

PREDICATE

IF

SUB­JECT

PREDICATE

WILL/ WOULD/ WOULD HAVE ETC,

VERB

OB­JECT, ETC.

VERB

OBJECT, ETC.

1

I

will

go

if

he

gives

me the money.

2

He

can

pass

the exam

if

he

studies

hard.

3

She

may

come

if

she

isn’t

ill.

4

I

would

go

if

he

gave

me the money.

5

He

should

pass

the exam

if

he

studied

hard.

6

She

might

come

if

she

weren’t

ill.

7

I

would have

gone

if

he

had given

me the money.

8

He

could have

passed

the exam

if

he

had studied

hard.

9

She

might have

come

if

she

hadn’t been

ill.

1. There are three important types of conditional sentences:

a). Future conditional sentences

b). Present conditional sentences

c). Past conditional sentences

a) A future conditional sentence expresses that something mentioned in the if – clause will probably happen or is likely to happen in the present or in the future.

b) A present conditional sentence expresses that something mentioned in the if – clause is unreal or contrary to the fact of the present.

c) A past conditional sentence also states a contrary – to – the -fact condition. It expresses that something mentioned in the if- clause did not occur in the past.

a) In the future conditional sentence the main clause uses will, can, must, may, to be going to. have to, expect to, plus the first form of a verb. The verb in the conditional clause is in the present tense. See sentences 1, 2 and 3 in the frame.

b) In the present conditional sentence the main clause uses would, could, might, was going to, expected to, plus the first form of a verb. The verb in the conditional clause is in the past tense. See sentences 4, 5 and 6 in the frame.

c) In the past conditional sentence the main clause uses would have, could have, might have, plus the third form of a verb. The verb in the conditional clause is in the past perfect tense. See sentences 7, 8 and 9 in the frame. The contracted forms would’ve, could’ve, etc. are often used instead of would have, could have, etc.

2. When the verb in the present conditional sentence is be, were is commonly used for all persons. See sentence 6 in the frame.

Other examples:

(1) I might come if I weren ‘t ill.

(2) You could go if she were here.

(3) They would study if they were students.

3. The verb form used in the contrary – to – fact condition is also called subjunctive.

The conditional clause can follow or precede the main clause.

Examples:

(1) He will come if he gets a car.

(2) I would go if he gave me the book.

(3) We could have invited her if she had been here. or:

(1) If he gets a car, he will come.

(2) If he gave me the book, / would go.

(3) If she had been here, we could have invited her.

4. When the conditional clause precedes the main clause, it is often separated from the main clause by a comma (,).

5. The main clause can be in the affirmative, interrogative (question); or negative form. All the sentences in the above frame have affirmative main clauses. The conditional clause can be affirmative (sentences 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8) or negative (sentences 3, 6, 9).

Frame 2: Interrogative Main Clause

MAIN CLAUSE

CONDITIONAL CLAUSE

WILL/WOULD ETC.

SUBJECT

verb

OB­JECT

1

Will

you

go

if he gives you the money?

2

Can

he

pass

the exam

if he studies hard?

3

May

she

come

if she isn’t ill?

4

Would

you

go

if he gave you the money?

5

Could

he

pass

the exam

if he studied hard?

6

Might

she

come

if she weren’t ill?


Conditional Clause without if

Source: English for The SLTA-Structure Reference Book II & III, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Another way of expressing the present and past conditional sentence is by a conditional clause without if.

Frame 1: Conditional Clauses before Main Clauses

CONDITIONAL CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

WERE, HAD, SHOULD, COULD, ETC.

SUBJECT

VERB

OBJECT, ETC

1

Were

she

ill

she might not come today.

2

Had

they

a sense of humour

nobody would be bored.

3

Were

he

a doctor

he could help you.

4

Should

he

call

what would you say to him?

5

Had

he

studied

hard

he would have passed the exam.

6

Had

they

come

yesterday

I would’ve seen them.

7

Could

the dead man

have spoken

he would’ve told us who murdered him.

1. If the word if is omitted the conditional clause comes before the main clause and the word order in the conditional clause is the same as the one in a question sentence. The word order in the main clause is not changed. See the sentences in the frame above.

2. The word if can be omitted from the conditional clause if the clause has were or had as a verb, (see sentences 1 —3), or were, had, should, or could as a structure word (see sentences 1 — 7).

3. The conditional clause without if can be made negative by adding not after the subject. The contracted form n’t is never used.

Examples:

(1) Were he not here, he wouldn’t know about it.

(2) Had he not come earlier, you wouldn’t have met him.

4. In a conditional sentence without if, a comma is commonly used after the conditional clause.

21 Responses

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  14. oscar garcia said, on 7 March 2014 at 10:11 pm

    Hi everyone, i was wondering where can i get a copy of the English for The SLTA-Structure Reference book? is there any international publisher? Thanks in advance, greetings!

    • sunartonurnaeni said, on 3 November 2014 at 8:51 pm

      it is published in Indonesia in 1970s for senior high school teacher, but it is not printed again, and is not used again. I have just one copy of it.

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