All English SMA N 1 SLAWI

Genre (jenis teks) (COMMENT ON THE SUB)

GENRE

GENRE

SOCIAL FUNCTION

GENERIC STRUCTURE

SIGNIFICANT LEXICOGRAMATICAL FEATURES

Recount (Spoof) To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining
  • Orientation: provides the setting and introduces participants
  • Events: tell what happened, in what sequence.
  • Re-orientation: optional-closure of events
  • Focus on specific Participants
  • Use of material processes
  • Circumstances of time and place Use of past tense
  • Focus on temporal sequence.
Report To describe the way things are, with reference to a range of natural, man-made and social phenomena in our environment
  • General classification: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is.
  • Description tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of (l) parts, (2) qualities, (3) habits or behaviors, if living; uses, if non-living
  • Focus on Generic Participants.
  • Use of Relational Processes to state what is and that which it is.
  • Use of simple present tense (unless extinct).
  • No temporal sequence
Discussion To present (at least) two points of view about anissue.
  • Issue:
    • Statement
    • Preview
  • Arguments for and against or Statement of differing points of view.
    • Point
    • Elaboration
  • Conclusion or Recommendation
  • Focus on generic human and generic non-human Participants.
  • Use of:
    • Material Processes, e.g. has produced, have developed, to feed.
    • Relational rocesses, e.g., is, could have, cause, are.
    • Mental Processes, e.g., feel.
  • Use of Comparative: contrastive and Consequential conjunctions.
  • Reasoning expressed as verbs and nouns (abstraction).
Explanation To explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or sociocultural phenomena
  • A general statement to position the reader.
  • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs.
  • Focus on generic, non-human Participants.
  • Use mainly of Material and Relational Processes.
  • Use mainly of temporal and causal Circumstances and Conjunctions.
  • Some use of Passive voice to get Theme right.
Exposition (Analytical) To persuade the reader or listener that something s the case.
  • Thesis: Position: Introduces topic and indicates writer’s position. Preview: Outlines the main arguments to be presented.
  • Arguments: Point: restates main arguments outlined in Preview. Elaboration: develops and supports each Point/argument
  • Reiteration: restates writer’s position.
  • Focus on generic human and non-human Participants.
  • Use of simple present tense.
  • Use of Relational Processes.
  • Use of Internal conjunction to state argument
  • Reasoning through Causal conjunction or nominalization.
Exposition (Hortatory) To persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case
  • Thesis: announcement of issue concern.
  • Arguments: reasons for concern, leading to recommendation.
  • Recommendation: statement of what ought or ought not to happen.
  • Focus on generic human and non-human Participants, except for speaker or writer referring to self. Use of:
    •   Mental Processes: to state what writer thinks or feels about issue, e.g. realize, feel, appreciate
    •   Material Processes: to state what happens, e.g., is polluting, drive, travel, spend, should be treated.
    •   Relational Processes: to state what is or should be, e.g., doesn’t seem to have been, is
  • Use of simple present tense
News Item To inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important
  • Newsworthy Event(s): recounts the event in summary form
  • Background Events: elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances.
  • Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event.
  • Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline.
  • Use of Material Processes to retell the event (in the text below, many of the Material Processes are nominalised).
  • Use of projecting Verbal Processes in Sources stage.
  • Focus on Circumstances (e.g. mostly within Qualifiers),
Anecdote To share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident.
  • Abstract: signals the retelling of an unusual incident. Orientation: sets the scene.
  • Crisis: provides details of the unusual incident Reaction: reaction to crises
  • Coda: optional – reflection on or evaluation of the incident.
  • Use of exclamations, rhetorical questions and intensifiers (really, very, quite, etc.) to point up the significance of the events.
  • Use of material Processes to tell what happened.
  • Use of temporal conjunctions.
Narrative To amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways;Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a    resolution.
  • Orientation: sets the scene and introduces the participants.
  • Evaluation: a stepping back to evaluate the plight.
  • Complication: a crisis arises.
  • Resolution: the crisis is resolved, for better or for worse.
  • Re-orientation: optional.
  • Focus on specific and usually individualized Participants.
  • Use of Material Processes (and in this text, Behavioual and Verbal Processes.
  • Use of Relational Processes and Mental Processes.
  • Use of temporal conjunctions and temporal Circumstances.
  • Use of past tense.
Procedure To describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.
  • Goal
  • Materials (not required for all
  • Procedural texts).
  • Steps 1-n (i.e.. Goal followed by a series of steps oriented to achieving the Goal).
  • Focus on generalized human agents.
  • Use of simple present tense, often Imperative.
  • Use mainly of temporal conjunctions (or numbering to indicate sequence).
  • Use mainly of Material Processes.
Description To describe a particular person, place or thing. •   Identification: Identifies phenomenon to be described.•   Description: describes parts, qualities, characteristics.
  • Focus on specific Participants
  • Use of Attributive and Identifying Processes.
  • Frequent use of Epithets and Classifiers in nominal groups.
  • Use of simple present tense.
Review To critique an art work, event for a public audience.Such works of art include movies, TV shows, books, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions, concerts and ballets.
  • Orientation: places the work in its general and particular context, often by comparing it with others of its kind or through analogue with a non-art object or event.
  • Interpretive Recount: summaries the plot and/or provides an account of how the reviewed rendition of the work came into being; is optional, but if present, often recursive.
  • Evaluation: provides an evaluation of the work and/or its performance or production; is usually recursive. Evaluative
  • Summation: provides a kind of punch line which sums up the reviewer’s opinion of the art event as a whole; is optional.
  • Focus on Particular Participants.
  • Direct expression of options through use ofAttitudinal Ephitets in nominal groups; qualitative Attributes and Affective Mental Processes.
  • Use of elaborating and extending clause and group complexes to package the information.
  • Use of metaphorical language (e.g., The wit was there, dexterously ping ponged to and fro …).

Lampiran 4

DAFTAR CONTOH-CONTOH TEKS

Berikut ini adalah contoh jenis teks yang disebutkan pada lampiran 3

 

SPOOF/RECOUNT

Penguin In The Park Orientation

Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin.

Event 1

He took him to a policeman and said, ‘I have just found this penguin. What should I do?’ The policeman replied, ‘take him to the zoo’.

Event 2

The next day the policeman saw the same man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked, ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did’,  replied the man.

Twist;

and it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it, so today I’m taking him to the moviest!

Note that the ‘twist’ in this particular text is related to the circumstances of place the penguin is taken to and to the man’s misinterpretation of the policeman’s (unspoken) reason for taking the penguin to the zoo.

 

RECOUNTS

Earthquake

Orientation

I was driving along the coast road when the car suddenly lurched to one side.

Event 1

At first I thought a tyre had gone but then I saw telegraph poles collapsing like matchsticks.

Event 2

The rocks came tumbling across the road and I had to abandon the car.

Event 3

When I got back to town, well, as I said, there wasn’t much left.

Note that young writers often indicate temporal sequence with ‘and then, and then, and then’. Alternatives can be modeled and used when the teacher and students jointly construct Recounts.

REPORTS

Whales

General Classification

Whales are sea-living mammals

Description: (behaviours, qualities, parts)

They therefore breathe air but cannot survive on land. Some species are very large indeed and the blue whale, which can exceed 30m in length, is the largest animal to have lived on earth. Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important differences in its external structure: its tail consists ofa pair of broad, flat, horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lies a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to 30 cm in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body fluids.

 


ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

 

Thesis: Position

In Australia there are three levels of government, the federal government, state governments and local governments. All of these levels of government are necessary. This is so for a number of reasons.

Argument 1

Point

First, the federal government is necessary for the big things.

Elaboration

They keep the economy in order and look after things like defence.

Argument 2

Point

Similarly, the state governments look after the middle sized things.

Elaboration

For example they look after law and order, preventing things like vandalism in schools.

Argument 3

Point

Finally, local governments look after the small things.

Elaboration

They look after things like collecting rubbish, otherwise everyone would have diseases.

Conclusion

Thus. for the reasons above we can conclude that the three levels of government are necessary

 

NEWS ITEM

Town ‘Contaminated’

Newsworthy Event

Moscow -A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.

Background Events

Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base ofshkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock.

The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chemobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and i.earby town. but was covered up by officials of the then Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tonnes of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.

Sources

A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

 

ANECDOTE

Snake in the Bath

Abstract

How would you like to find a snake in your bath?

A nasty one too!

Orientation

We hadjust moved into a new house, which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna and 1 decided we would clean the bath first, so we set to, and turned on the tap.

Crisis

Suddenly to my horror, a snake’s head appeared in the plug-Ao/e. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath, spitting and hissing at us.

Incident

For an instant I stood there quite paralysed. Then I yelled for my husband, who luckily came running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom. Anna, who was only three at the time, was quite interested in the whole business. Indeed I had to pull her out of the way or she’d probably have leant over the bath to get a better look!

Coda

We found out later that it was a black mamba, a poisonous kind of snake. It had obviously been fast asleep, curled up at the bottom of the nice warm water-pipe. It must have had an awful shock when the cold water came trickling down! But nothing to the shock I got! Ever since then Vve always put the plug in firmly before running the bath water.

 

NARRATIVE

Snow White

Orientation

Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead.

Major Complication

One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White.

Resolution

Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods.

Complication

She was very tired and hungry.

Resolution

Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep.

Complication

Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, what is your name? Snow White said, ‘My name is Snow White’.

Major Resolution

Doc said, ‘If you wish, you may live here with us”. Snow White said, ‘Oh could I? Thank you.’ Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.

 

PROCEDURE

The Hole Game

Materials needed

Two players

One marble per person

A hole in ground

A line (distance) to start from

Method (step 1-n)

1. First you must dub (click marbles together).

2. Then you must check that the marbles are in good condition and are nearly worth the same value.

3. Next you must dig a hole in the ground and draw a line a fair distance away from the hole.

4. The first player carefully throws his or her marble towards the hole.

5. Then the second player tries to throw his or her marble closer to the hole than his or her opponent.

6. The player whose marble is closest to the hole tries to flick his or her marble into the hole. If successful, this player tries to flick his or her opponent’s marble into the hole.

The person flicking the last marble into the hole wins and gets to keep both marbles.

 


DESCRIPTION

Natural Bridge National Park

Identification

Natural Bridge National Park is a luscious tropical rainforest.

Description

It is located 110 kilometres south of Brisbane and is reached by following the Pacific Highway to Nerang and then by travelling through the Numinbah Valley. This scenic roadway lies in the shadow of the Lamington National Park.

The phenomenon of the rock formed into a natural ‘arch* and the cave through which a waterfall cascades is a short 1 kilometre walk below a dense rainforest canopy from the main picnic area. Swimming is permitted in the rock pools. Night-time visitors to the cave will discover the unique feature of the glow worms.

Picnic areas offer toilets, barbecues, shelter sheds, water and fireplaces; however, overnight camping is not permitted.

 

HORTATORY EXPOSITION

Country Concern

Thesis

In all the discussion over the removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn ‘t seem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and the country.

Argument

While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever 1 drive, I feel that when you travel through the country, where you only see another car every five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.

Argument

Those who want to penalise older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don ‘tseem to appreciate that, in me country, there is no public transport to fall back upon and one’s own vehicle is the only way to get about.

Recommendation

I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend & great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live in the city.

 

EXPLANATION

A brief Summary of Speech Production

General Statement to Position the Reader

Speech production is made possible by the specialised movements of our vocal organs that generate speech sounds waves.

Explanation

Like all sound production, speech production requires a source of energy. The source of energy for speech production is the steady stream of air that comes from the lungs as we exhale. When we breathe normally, the air stream is inaudible. To become audible, the air stream must vibrate rapidly. The vocal cords cause the air stream to vibrate.

Explanation

As we talk, the vocal cords open and close rapidly, chopping up the steady air stream into a series of puffs. These puffs are heard as a buzz. But this buzz is still not speech.

Explanation

To produce speech sounds, the vocal tract must change shape. During speech we continually alter the shape of the vocal track by moving the tongue and lips,etc. These movements change the acoustic properties of the vocal tract, which in turn produce the different sounds of speech.

 


DISCUSSION

Gene Splicing

Issue

Genetic research has produced both exciting and frightening possibilities. Scientists are now able to create new forms of life in the laboratory due to the development of gene splicing.

Arguments for

Point

On the one hand, the ability to create life in the laboratory could greatly benefit mankind.

Elaboration

For example, because it is very expensive to obtain insulin from natural sources, scientists have developed a method to manufacture it inexpensively in the laboratory.

Point

Another beneficial application of gene splicing is in a agriculture.

Elaboration

Scientists foresee the day when new plants will be developed using nitrogen from the air instead of from fertilizer. Therefore food production could be increased. In addition, entirely new plants could be developed to feed the world’s hungry people.

Argument against

Point

Not everyone is excited about gene splicing, however. Some people feel that it could have terrible consequences.

Elaboration

A laboratory accident, for example, might cause an epidemic of an unknown disease that could wipe out humanity.

Conclusion

As a result of this controversy, the government has made rules to control genetic experiments. While some members of the scientific community feel that these rules are too strict, many other people feel that they are still not strict enough.

 

REVIEWS

Private Lives Sparkle

Orientation

Since the first production of’Private Lives’ in 1930, with the theatre’s two leading sophisticates Noel Coward and Gertrude Lawrence in the leads, the play has tended to be seen as a vehicle for stars.

Evaluation

QUT Academy of the Arts’ production boasted no ‘stars’, but certainly fielded potential stars in a sparkling performance that brought out just how fine a piece of craftsmanship Coward’s play is.

Evaluation

More than 60 years later, what new could be deduced from so familiar a theme?

Director Rod Wissler’s highly perceptive approach went beyond the glittery surface of Witty banter to the darker implications beneath.

Interpretative Recount

With the shifting of attitudes to social values, it became clear that Victor and Sibyl were potentially the more admirable of the couples, with standards better adjusted than the volatile and self-indulgent Elyot and Amanda.

Evaluation

The wit was there, dexterously ping-ponged to and fro by a vibrant Amanda (Catherine Jones) and a suave Elyot (Daniel Kealy).

Evaluation

Julie Eckersley’s Sibyl was a delightful creation, and Phillip Cameron-Smith’s more serious playing w&sjust right for Victor. Jodie Levesconte was a superb French maid. James Maclean’s set captured the Thirties atmosphere with many subtle touches.

Evaluative Summation

All involved deserve the highest praise.

30 Responses

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