All English SMA N 1 SLAWI

infinitive without to, participles, gerund

UNIT 1

Infinitive without To, Participles and Gerunds

Infinitive without to

The infinitive without to is used after certain verbs in English, namely

a) verbs indicating physical perception such as hear, see, feel, listen to, look at, notice, observe, watch;

b) those not indicating physical perception, such as make, let, help, have, know, and

c) those expressing a proposal, resolution, request, order, or suggestion, in the dependent clause, such as propose, advise, ask, command, demand, desire, insist, order, rec­ommend, request, require, suggest.

Frame la: After Verbs Indicating Physical Perception

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

VERB (PHRASE)

NOUN OR PRONOUN

INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO

ETC.

1

I

heard

her

sing,

2

He

saw

them

go out.

3

They

felt

the house

shake.

4

We

are going to look at

the men

do

the job.

Usage

1. We can see in Frame la that the infinitive without to is used after the noun or pronoun following the verb.

2. The infmitive without to can either be a transitive or an intransitive verb.

3. The verbs in Frame la can also be followed by the active participle.

Example:

I heard her sing. or I heard her singing (See part (B.I) below).

Frame 1 b: After Verbs not Indicating Physical Perception

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

VERB (PHRASE)

NOUN OR PRONOUN

INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO

ETC.

1

The boys

made

the photo­grapher

take

their pictures.

2

They

let

their children

come

with us.

3

He

can help*

you

finish

the work.

4

She

has

him

take

her to the office.

5

I

never knew*

him

behave

so badly.

6

We

have never known*

him

do

such a thing.

Usage

1. Unlike the verbs in Frame la, the verbs in Frame Ib can only be followed by the infinitive without to.

2. The verbs “help’ and ‘know’ in Frame Ib may also be followed by the to- infmitive.

Examples:

(1) They helped us carry the boxes or They helped us to carry the boxes,

(2) We never knew him behave so badly.or We never knew him to behave so badly,

(2) They have never known him do such a thing.or They have never known him to do such a thing,

Note:

the verb ‘knew* in this pattern may only be used in the simple past and the perfect tenses.

When the verb ‘see’, ‘make’ or ‘know’ is in the passive voice it is followed by the to- infinitive.

Examples

ACTIVE

He saw them go out

The boys made the photographer take their pictures.

We have never known him do such a thing.

PASSIVE

They were seen to go out.

The photographer was made to take their pictures.

He has never been known to do such a thing.

Frame Ic: After Verbs Expressing a Proposal, etc.

MAIN CLAUSE

DEPENDENT CLAUSE

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

THAT

SUBJECT

INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO

ETC

1

I

propose

that

the report

be

distrib­uted

2

He

advised

that

Mr. Jones

write

the report.

3

She

asked

that

they

be

quiet.

4

The man

demanded

that

she

hand over

the money.

5

They

insisted

that

we

finish

the work.

MAIN CLAUSE

DEPENDENT CLAUSE

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

THAT

SUBJECT

INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO

ETC.

6

It

is ne­cessary

that.

he

take

a vacation.

7

It

is im­portant

that

we

be

on time.

Usage.

1. The verb Cpiopose\ ‘advise*, ‘ask’, etc.) is followed by a, dependent clause introduced by that.

2. The form of the verb in the dependent clause is infinitive without to. Often the infinitive without to is the structure word be followed by the 3rd form, or the linking verb ‘be’ plus its complement. See sentences 1 and 3 in Frame Ic above.

3. Very often the modal ‘should’ is used before the infinitive without to.

Example: I suggest that you should study harder.

4. The infinitive without to may also be used in the dependent clause that follows certain adjectives, such as important, nec­essary, essential, (see sentences 6 and 7 in Frame Ic).


Participles

1. Active Participles

The active participles is used after certain verbs indicating physical perception listed in A 1. The following verbs also belong to this group:

Catch, keep, leave, smell. These last four verbs can only be followed by the active participle while the others can be followed either by the active participle or the the infinitive (compare with A 1). There is a slight difference in meaning between the infinitive without to and the active participle. ,

Example:

I saw him go out (= He went out and I saw him). I saw him going out (= He was going out when I saw him).

Frame 2a: Active Participles

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

VERB

NOUN OR PRONOUN

ACTIVE PARTICIPLE

ETC.

1

I

saw

the man

crossing

the street.

2

The old man

felt

the house

shaking.

3

Mrs. Pock

caught

little Johnny

smoking

a cigar.

4

They

kept

us

waiting.

5

She

smelt

something

burning.

Usage

1. Like the infinitive without to in A 1, the present participle is placed after the noun or pronoun following the verb.

2. The active participle can either be a transitive or an intransitive verb.

3. Note that the verbs see, catch, keep can also be used in the passive.

Examples:

(1) The man was seen crossing the street.

(2) Little Johnny was caught smoking.

(3) We were kept waiting. The other verbs are not commonly used in the passive.

2. Passive Participles

The passive participles may be used after the verbs make, feel, find,hear. ,like, prefer, see, want, wish, get, have.

The meaning is something like a passive construction.

Example:

He couldn’t make his voice heard. (= He couldn’t raise his voice loud enough to be heard.).

Frame 2b: Passive Participles

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

VERB

NOUN OR PRONOUN

PASSIVE PARTICIPLE

ETC.

1

He

felt

her thumb

pressed

against his temple

2

I

found

the book

covered

with dust.

3

I

like

my egg

boiled.

4

She

saw

her friend

hit

by the car.

5

He

got

his hair

cut.

6

She

had

a new dress

made.

Usage

1. We can see in Frame 2b that the passive participle is used after the noun or pronoun following the verb.

2. This pattern is a kind of passive construction. Therefore the passive participle should be a transitive verb.

Gerund.

The verbs ‘want’ and ‘need’ may be followed by a gerund. The meaning of the gerund here is equivalent to a passive construction.

Example: Your shoes need mending (= Your shoes need to be mended).

Frame 3.

SUBJECT

VERB

GERUND

1

It

wants

doing.

2

Your shoes

want

mending.

3

Your work

needs

correcting.

4

That

needs

explaining.

Usage

The gerund is used directly after the verb.

The gerund in the frame above can be replaced by the to- infinitive

form of the passive construction.

Examples:

(1) It wants to be done (‘want’ here means the same as ‘need’).

(2) Your shoes want (or need) to be mended.

(3) Your work needs to be corrected.

(4) That needs to be explained.

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