All English SMA N 1 SLAWI

gerunds

Gerunds

Source: English for The SLTA-Structure Reference Book II & III, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

A gerund is a verbal that functions as a noun. The form of the gerund is: the first form of a verb + ing. The gerund may be used in the following ways:

as a subject

as an object

as a predicate complement.

as a noun modifier.

A. Gerunds as Subjects

Frame 1. Gerund + Predicate

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

1

Cooking

is a good hobby.

2

Being hungry

is never fun.

3

Baking cake

is very hard.

4

Riding a bicycle

isn’t easy.

Usage

The gerund can be used as the subject of a sentence. Look at the sentences in the above frame: The subject of each sentence contains a gerund. The gerund may be used alone, as in sentence 1. The gerund may have a complement, ‘hungry’ (sentence 2), a modifier, ‘cake’ (sentence 3), or an object, ‘a bicycle’ (sentence 4). A gerund and its complement, modifier, etc. is called a gerund phrase.

B. Gerunds as Objects

Frame 2a. Subject + Verb + Gerund

SUBJECT

VERB

OBJECT

1

Bakri

enjoys

riding a bicycle.

2

I

like

swimming.

Usage

1. The gerund or gerund phrase can be used as the direct object of certain verbs. Look at the sentences above. The gerund phrase ‘riding a bicycle’ is the direct object of the verb ‘enjoys’, the gerund ‘swimming’ is the direct object of the verb ‘like’.

2. Other verbs that can be followed by a gerund are: admit, appreciate, avoid, begin,* can’t help, continue,* deny, dislike,* finish, forget, * hate, * keep, mind, neglect, * practice, prefer, * regret, remember, start, * stop.

Note

a) The verbs with * can be followed by a to-infinitive as the direct object with no difference in meaning (See Unit 3: To-infinitives as Objects).

b) The verb: ‘forget’, ‘remember’, and ‘stop’ can be followed by a gerund or a to-infinitive, but the meanings of these two patterns are different.

After the verbs ‘forget’ and ‘remember’, the gerund refers to a past action, the to-infinitive refers to the future.

Example: He forgets telling her the story (= He. told her the story, but he forgets that he did it).

He forgets to tell her the story (= He forgets that he is supposed to tell her the story)

After the verb ‘stop’, the gerund is a direct object; the to-infinitive is a modifier indicating purpose.

Example: He stopped working (= He stopped his work).

He stopped to work (= He stopped in order to work). (See Unit 3: To-infinitives as Modifiers).

Frame 2b: Subject + Verb + Preposition + Gerund

SUBJECT + VERB

PREPOSITION

PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT

1

I’m thinking

about

going home.

2

They left

without

eating.

3

She apologized

for

coming late.

Usage

The gerund can be used as the object of a preposition. Look at the sentences in the above frame. In sentence 1, the preposition ‘about’ is followed by a gerund phrase ‘going home’. In sentence 2, the preposi­tion ^without’ is followed by a gerund ‘eating’.

C Gerunds as Predicate Complements

Frame 3: Subject + be + Gerund

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

BE

COMPLEMENT

1

My hobby

is

swimming.

2

His favourite sport

was

bicycle riding.

Usage

The gerund may be used as a predicate complement. It completes the predicate after the verb be.

Look at the sentences above. The gerund ‘swimming’ in sentence 1 is used as the predicate complement after ‘is’. The gerund phrase ‘bicycle riding’ is used as the predicate complement after ‘was’.

D. Gerunds as Modifiers of Nouns

Frame 4: Gerund + Noun

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

MODIFIER

NOUN

1

The reading

books

are on the table.

2

The waiting

room

is full of people.

Usage

1. The gerund may be used as a modifier of a noun. It describes the use of the nouns it modifies.

Look at the sentences in the frame.

A reading book is a book that is used for reading. A waiting room is a room used by people who are waiting for someone or something.

2. The gerund comes before the noun it modifies, and is pro­nounced with a stronger stress than the noun.

E. Gerunds with their Subjects

Frame 5 a: Subject + Gerund as a Subject

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

1

Tuti’s cooking

is very good.

Frame 5b: Subject + Genind as an Object

SUBJECT + VERB

OBJECT

1

We enjoy

her dancing.

Usage

1. The gerund used as a subject or an object may have its own subject. The subject indicates the actor of the action expressed by the gerund.

2. The subject has the form of a noun + ‘s or a possessive pronoun.

Look at the sentences in the above frames. In frame 5a, ‘Tuti’ is the subject of ‘cooking’. It takes the form of noun + ‘s: Tuti’s. In frame 5b, ‘she’ is the subject of ‘dancing’. It is in the possessive form: her.

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