All English SMA N 1 SLAWI

so, too, enough, such in adverb clauses

AdverbClauses as Modifiers of Main Clauses Containing Phrases with so, enough or such

Source: English for The SLTA-Structure Reference Book II & III, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Main clauses of these kinds may contain adjective phrases, adverb phrases or noun phrases.

Frame 1: Main Clauses Containing Adjective Phrases

MAIN CLAUSE

CLAUSE OF RESULT

SUBJECT + VERB

ADJECTIVE PHRASE

CLAUSE MARKER

SUBJECT + PREDICATE

SO

ADJECTIVE

ENOUGH

1

I was

so

busy

that

I forgot about time.

2

The coffee is

so

hot

that

I can’t drink it.

3

It was

late

enough

that

I soon slept.

4

You are

tall

enough

that

you can touch the fruit of that tree.

Usage

1. In the complex sentences above, the main clause contains an adjective phrase with so, or enough. So or enough modifies the adjective.

In sentence 1, for example, so busy is an adjective phrase. In this phrase so modifies or adds the meaning ofbusy‘.

2. The main clause is modified by an adverb clause. The adverb clause indicates the result of what is stated in the main clause.

In sentence 1, the main clause, ‘I was so busy’, is modified by ‘that I forgot about time’. The sentence means ‘I forgot about time because I was so busy’. We can also say that ‘I forgot about time’ is the result of my being so busy‘.

3. Notice that the place of so is before the adjective and the place of enough is after the adjective. Such is not used in the adjective phrases.

Frame 2: Main Clauses Containing Adverb Phrases

MAIN CLAUSE

CLAUSE OF RESULT

SUBJECT + VERB

ADVERB PHRASE

CLAUSE MARKER

SUBJECT + PREDICATE

SO/TOO

ADVERB

ENOUGH

1

He spoke

so

quickly

that

I couldn’t understand him.

2

It is made

so

nicely

that

she wants to buy it.

3

He speaks

slowly

enough

that

everybody can understand him.

4

He works

carefully

enough

that

he rarely makes mis­takes.

Usage

1. In the complex sentences above, the main clause contains an adverb phrase with so or enough. So or enough modifies the adverb.

In sentence 1, for example, so quickly is an adverb phrase. In this phrase so modifies or adds the meaning of ‘quickly’.

2. Adverb clause indicates the result of what is stated is the main clause.

In sentence 1, the main clause, He spoke so quickly‘, is modified by that I couldn’t understand him‘. The sentence means I couldn’t understand him because he spoke so quickly! We can also say that I couldn’t understand him is the result of his speaking so quickly‘.

3. Notice again that the place of so is before the adverb and the place of enough is after the adverb. Such is not used in adverb phrases.

Frame 3. Main Clauses Containing Noun Phrases.

MAIN CLAUSE

CLAUSE OF RESULT

SUBJECT + VERB

NOUN PHRASE

CLAUSE MARKER

SUBJECT + PREDICATE

SO/SUCH

NOUN

1

He bought

so many

books

that

he couldn’t carry them by ‘becak’.

2

He has

so much

work

that

nobody can see him.

3

It gave him

such

a shock

that

his face turned white.

4

It was

such

nice food

that

people liked it very much.

Usage

1. In the sentences above, the main clause contains a noun phrase with so or such

In sentence 1, for example, so many books’ is a noun phrase. In this phrase so many modifies books’. So‘, in turn, modifies many‘.

2. In sentence 3, such a shock is a noun phrase. In this phrase suchmodifies a shock‘. In sentence 4, such modifies the smaller noun phrase nice food‘, and nice‘, in turn, modifies food‘.

3. The main clause is modified by an adverb clause, which indicates the result of the main clause.

In sentence 1, the main clause He bought so many books’ is modified by that he couldn’t carry them by becak‘. The sentence means Because he bought so many books, he couldn’t carry them by becak‘.

Note: enough is not used in noun phrases.

Examples:

(1) She was so happy to see us that she cried.

(2) John is old enough to drive a car that he decides to get a license.

4. Notice that the place of enough is after the adjective (see sentence 4, 5).

Note:

a. Such is not used in adjective phrases.

b. A clause containing too cannot be modified by a result clause. (See tenses 1, 2).

Frame 4: Noun Phrases Containig so, too or such

SUBJECT

NOUN/NOUN PHRASE

PREDICATE

BE/VERB

NOUN PHRASE

SO/TOO/SUCH + NOUN

TO-INFINITIVE

1

There

are

so many things

to buy.

2

I

had

so much work

to do.

3

John

had

so many books

to carry.

4

The students

were given

too difficult a problem

to solve.

5

They

provided

such a beautiful car

for us to go around.

Usage

  1. So many things to buy (see sentence 1) is a noun phrase. It is formed by a smaller noun phrase ‘so many things’. To buy modifies or adds the meaning of ‘so many things’. ‘So many’, in ‘so many things’ modifies or adds the meaning of’ many’.
  2. To tne whole clause containing so or such we may add another clause which begins with ‘that’. This clause modifies the first clause and indicates the result of the first clause.

Examples:

(1) I had so much,work to do that I forgot my appointment.

(2) He had so many books to carry that he asked me to help him.

(3) They provided such a beautiful car for us to go around that we enjoyed our stay very much.

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